Italy and Mexico: Networks of Partisans
This chapter considers the possible origins of the national differences in two steps: The first step to shows that the differences in individualism levels are roughly consistent with differences in the underlying religious philosophies. The second step considers the extent that national elites and state actions involved in the institutionalization of the supporting religious institutions in the countries under study. The analysis gives an idea about the limits to the explanatory power of the elite leadership thesis. Buddhism provides another basis for accepting the importance of group expectations. Confucius was a social philosopher who lived approximately 2,500 years ago. The reality of a social hierarchy seemed inescapable. Hindu philosophy is consistent with the institution of the caste system. The social philosophies of the Protestants strengthened the emphasis on individualism. The core teaching of Martin Luther was that everyone has to be responsible for own salvation. The imperial examination system lasted in some form until the beginning of the twentieth century.