This chapter introduces the chosen civil society actors, and investigates the following three questions. First, how and why did the groups emerge? Second, which narratives underpin their existence, and to which broader discourses are they linked? Third, what aims do the groups seek to achieve? The clariﬁcation of the circumstances surrounding the emergence of these actors, their membership numbers, and the type of organisation they represent will enable us to understand how these groups developed over time and what resources they had at their disposal. Furthermore, the chapter also addresses the differences between the groups in terms of their organisational design and the meaning these diﬀerences have in terms of the broader matter of progressive war memory activism, as well as similarities between the discourses that inform their actions. While the ﬁndings from the chapter elucidate the origins, organisation and discursive positions that the groups occupy in the debates about Japan’s wartime past, in addition it engages with the two dimensions of struggle concerning war memory, namely, agencies and narratives of articulation (see Chapter 2).