On the Relativity of the Conception of Distance
Let us consider two particular points on the train1 travelling along the embankment with the velocity v, and inquire as to their distance apart. We already know that it is necessary to have a body of reference for the measurement of a distance, with respect to which body the distance can be measured up. It is the simplest plan to use the train itself as reference-body (coordinate system). An observer in the train measures the interval by marking oﬀ his measuring-rod in a straight line (e.g. along the ﬂoor of the carriage) as many times as is necessary to take him from the one marked point to the other. Then the number which tells us how often the rod has to be laid down is the required distance.