Beyond the border: travel mobilities and the foundations of global citizenship
As discussed in the previous chapter, the modern liberal conception of citizenship has increasingly come under scrutiny, challenged by forces associated with globalization and the political reconfi guration of states. Citizenship thus no longer implies merely a balance of rights and duties contained within the scope of the nation-state. Rather it has been expanded (both conceptually and politically) to embrace manifold new conceptions and practices that are no longer exclusively tied to membership of the nation-state. International travel is one among several forces that has shaped new meanings of citizenship emerging from within the realignments between the nation-state, globalized capitalism and large-scale movements of people. This chapter will consider the transformation of citizenship from one that was signifi cantly anchored within the confi nes of the sovereign territorial nation-state, towards a much more fl uid and multilayered set of ideas informed and constituted within a variety of post-national discourses of cosmopolitanism, cultural rights and multicultural citizenship. Accordingly, it is crucial to acknowledge how international tourism has mobilized and expressed diverse ideas and practices of citizenship.