Enough Already! Angelic Accounts of ELF
This chapter gives some examples of what the author consider being unnecessarily 'angelic' interpretations of English as a lingua franca (ELF), before outlining various attested cooperative practices in ELF interactions. If ELF really is used 'in all manner of settings and for a fully extensive range of functions just like any English as a native language (ENL) or nativized version of the language', there will inevitably manifold occasions when interlocutors are not being maximally cooperative. One reason why it is unnecessary to angelize ELF speakers by redescribing all involuntary approximations as signs of unbridled creativity is that there is already a lot to admire in a lot of ELF interactions. Many researchers have described pragmatic strategies used in ELF. It exists, with both more and less proficient, competent and innovative speakers. Mauranen cites John Field, who suggests that speakers who hesitate and insert a lot of pauses also assist the non-native listener by marking more word beginnings and endings.