Over the last decade, the field of social psychology has become increasingly interested in investigating the effects of mindfulness. Dozens of laboratory studies have rigorously examined the short-term outcomes of mindfulness in controlled settings, yet the lack of ecological validity in these studies means that the claims of applied value and generalizability are limited. Meanwhile, mindfulness training has been introduced into classrooms worldwide in hopes of improving academic achievement and student well-being. While evidence of the efficacy of mindfulness-based intervention programs in schools is promising, their evaluation often still lacks the methodological rigor and strong theoretical foundation of most laboratory studies on mindfulness (Weare, 2013). That is a gap that we are hoping to help close. Here, we aim to integrate the extant literature on mindfulness and educational outcomes from both controlled experiments as well as research in more naturalistic settings. By synthesizing this diverse work and reconciling strengths and weaknesses from the various approaches, we present a theoretical model of the benefits of mindfulness-based interventions in primary and secondary education for student well-being and academic achievement.