We begin by examining the evidence base for our analysis by drawing on a range of empirical projects with data sets from over 50 consultants, and with a specic focus on the National Literacy Strategy (NLS) in England. In doing this, we aim to demonstrate how the ‘tools’ of policy scholarship – a recognition of policy inuences, texts, discourses, and eects (Bowe et al. 1992) – assist us in charting both the provenance and the patterns of consultants and consultancy. While clearly the focus is on England, the reach of this demand for appropriate and preferred knowledge is global in regard to commissioning researchers from outside of the UK to undertake evaluations of major evaluations (Earl et al. 2002). We bring understanding and explanations throughout the chapter by deploying Bernstein’s (1971, 1996, 2000, 2001) conceptual tools to read the data, and by doing this we enable an empirical contribution through the mapping of consultants and consultancy, combined with new ways of thinking about their location within and contribution to public policy.