ByAlexander J. Kent, Peter Vujakovic
Pages 5

For thousands of years, mapping has been essential for understanding the world around us and today more people are making, using and sharing maps than ever before. We rely on maps to navigate, to delineate and to decorate, and few other artefacts possess such versatility and significance within the human journey. The formalization of cartography (which we define as the art, science and technology of map-making) as an independent scientific discipline began to emerge in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when attempts were made to establish theoretical principles upon which best practice could be based. In particular, the Austrian geographer and cartographer Karl Peucker (1859–1940) had devised new ways of depicting elevation based on colour perception, while Max Eckert, in the publication of the two-volume Die Kartenwissenschaft (map science) in 1921 and 1925, sought to explicitly promote and establish cartography as a science.