chapter  30
State Government Regulation of Behavioral Treatment: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
ByRICHARD M. FOXX, VALERIE LACERRA, NINA CARRAGHAN, JESSICA A. FEDEZKO
Pages 25

The least intrusive of all behavioral interventions in which a staff member or individual (described in Pennsylvania as a “person”) consistently smiles at or looks away from a focal person contingent upon the occurrence or non-occurrence of a focal behavior, respectively. Of course, this is the very interactive process through which infants and young children with intellectual delays, acquire context appropriate facial expression and the fundamentals of interactive verbal and nonverbal communication, except in Pennsylvania where these procedures are inhumane and demeaning in interactions with children, and especially adults with intellectual disabilities, and thus staff and everyone who comes into contact with these individuals must smile all of the time.