The inﬂ ammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), are relapsing remitting chronic diseases with no cure. They tend to present in the young, who are faced with lifelong medication and monitoring. The medications in IBD carry a risk of adverse effects. This chapter is divided into two sections. The ﬁ rst addresses the potential psychological impact of IBD medical treatment. The second section explores the effect of psychological factors upon medication adherence, and techniques that the physician may use to improve adherence.