chapter  24
Future directions in IBD: the biopsychosocial care, the integrated care
Pages 7

The present book was written with the goal of demonstrating that infl ammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a biopsychosocial condition rather than just a purely physiological gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. Although historically, the link between psychological and gastrointestinal functioning has been well recognized, with the term ‘nervous diarrhea’ appearing in medical texts in the mid-1800s. The fi rst decades of the twentieth century promoted the psychodynamic understanding of IBD (perhaps because of the infl uential works by Freud at the time but also likely due to poor understanding of the differences between organic and functional GI disorders). The second half of the twentieth century and the discovery of novel anti-infl ammatory therapies shifted the understanding of IBD towards mostly physiological processes.