This chapter discusses the student motivational orientation that beginning teachers sought to promote. It also discusses classroom management and related activities designed to enhance control of students. The chapter explains American beginning teachers' expectations of students and the relevant activities through which they tried to achieve these expectations. It explores patterns of student control. The chapter also explores American beginning teachers' control of students in terms of time, space, and activity and highlights some differences between American and Japanese teachers' styles of control. It presents two approaches to control, identified as cognitive and affective, which respectively represent the American and Japanese styles. American and Japanese teachers have different approaches to classroom management, which account for distinctive patterns, although most teachers in both countries combine elements of both approaches. One is the cognitive approach, which by and large characterizes American strategies for classroom management and which underscores the creation and application of rules to regulate student behavior.