Self-Presentation and Impression Management
This chapter considers the ways in which people actively determine how others perceive them. It helps readers to understand what is conveyed through self-presentation in everyday life, and describe the personal and situational factors that influence self-disclosure. The chapter explains the impression management tactics social psychologists use when they claim an identity such as "attractive potential partner" or "competent student," and why they choose one tactic rather than another. It evaluates whether people can detect when others are using impression management tactics against them, and potential cues that reveal deception. The impression an individual makes on others depends not only on clothes, makeup, and grooming, but also on props in the environment. The chapter also describes some of the consequences that occur when people fail to project the identities they desire. It discusses managing appearances, ingratiation, aligning actions, and altercasting. One aspect of the self that often requires management is the expression of emotion.