This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts covered in the preceding chapters of this book. The book discusses the 1990s immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel, since the arrival of the first wave of these immigrants. It deals with ethnic formation among Russian immigrants, their location within the ethnic map of Israeli society, and the impact of these immigrants on the traditional bipolar Ashkenazi-Mizrahi ethnic division. The book analyzes immigration and ethnicity in Israel from a global perspective that delineates global-universal aspects alongside particular-national aspects connected to the formation and development of Israel. The religious-nonreligious schism in Israel is no less problematic. Both the ultra-Orthodox and the national-religious factions comprising the religious groups are at the forefront of deepening the rifts in Israeli society. Despite the differences in their political orientation and their stand toward Zionist ideology, neither of these groups perceives itself as a minority or behaves as such.