Friends with nuclear benefits
This chapter describes the extensive and enduring nuclear weapons ties between China and Pakistan. It highlights how the foundation for the nuclear cooperation was laid during the final days of the Mao era in the 1970s, and how Chinese assistance expanded during the 1980s. In 1971, the Soviet Union had signed a treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation with India, solidifying ties between the two states. The chapter also highlights how China provided crucial missile assistance to the weapons program well into the 2000s. The extensive nuclear relationship between the People's Republic of China and Pakistan dates back to the 1970s. In addition to the nuclear assistance, China also provided Pakistan with substantial missile assistance from the early 1990s. During the mid-1990s, China made some adjustments to its policy towards Pakistan. Transfer of weapons designs and other forms of assistance in developing a device, such as assistance in the development of a high-explosives package, constitute decisive evidence of intentional support.