In this chapter, the author explores whether his framework may be relevant to explain several non-Chinese cases. He examines several negative cases, where China refused to provide support to potential proliferators. The author provides several plausibility probes, including Soviet support of China, Russian support of Iran, as well as U. S. sheltering of Pakistan and Israel. During the 1980s, China sold nuclear technology to several other states with confirmed or suspected weapons programs. The exports to Argentina, Brazil, and South Africa constitute limited support rather than direct weapons assistance. A nuclear transfer that created a stir was the Chinese sale of a nuclear reactor to Algeria. Out of the 29 states that have explored or pursued a weapons option, two or possibly three – Libya, Egypt, and Indonesia – approached Beijing, but were rebuffed by Chinese leaders. There is one case that is at least partly at odds with the author's theory, namely China's sale of heavy water to India.