chapter  XV
The Fall of the Songhai Empire
ByE. W. Bovill
Pages 13

Throughout the history of Songhai there hovered on its northern frontier uncontrolled bands of Tuareg, mostly Idenan and Immedideren to whom the foundation of Timbuktu has been attributed. The immediate sequel to the defeat of the Songhai army by Judar at Tondibi was a general outbreak of anarchy and brigandage. The news of the flight of Askia Ishak and his shattered forces let loose all the turbulent elements and produced chaos throughout the parts of the tottering empire which had not yet felt the direct impact of the invader. Gao, the most distant of the Moorish outposts since the fall of Kolen, was strongly held by Judar, who, since his removal from the supreme command, had become a less complacent leader. El Mansur, again acquiescing in Judar's demand, sent out Ammar Pasha, a young eunuch of Portuguese descent who had already had an unfortunate experience in the Sahara when conducting 1,000 reinforcements to the Sudan.