The Sokoto Fulani
The Fulani, or Fulbe as they call themselves, whose eastward migrations had brought them into Hausa as early as the thirteenth century, are divided into the Bororoje or Cow Fulani and the Fulanin Gidda or Town Fulani. A memorable date in Fulani history is 21 February 1804 which marked the Hijra or Flight of Shehu from Degel. Nevertheless the Infaku'l Maisuri of Bello, who was the political, as his father had been the religious, founder of the Sokoto empire, demonstrates clearly the absolute sincerity of Shehu. As a young man returning from the pilgrimage to Mecca he had first visited El Kanemi in Bornu and had then settled for a time in Sokoto where he married a kinswoman of Bello. The victorious Muslims solemnly swore a jihad against the infidels on the field of battle. At Shehu's death Bello was made Sarkin Musulmi.