The Organisational Context of Urban Planning
Techniques of the second kind include population forecasting, forecasting housing need, job supply, calculating the viability of shopping centres, as with gravity models, and the environmental capacity of different areas, such as residential neighbourhoods, urban parks, countryside and sea-shore. If working people are sufficiently well organised and militant over a planning issue they may win some concessions from the authorities, such as provision of publicly owned housing, parks and open space, or the rehabilitation of existing housing, rather than clearance and renewal. There are two aspects of this organisational context which can be distinguished. The one concerns planning as a government activity, and the other concerns the development of land-use planning as a professional activity and academic discipline. Hence it is important to consider some aspects of this administrative context within which land-use planning operates. The chapter focuses on the role of government activity in general, and within that context the activity of land-use planning.