This chapter opens with a consideration of the many forms of nonfiction programming and the various ideological paradigms used to guide the nonfiction filmmaking process. The chapter considers landmark films and movements in the history of nonfiction filmmaking including the American romantic tradition, Cinema Verite, and direct cinema. Readers are introduced to many popular formats including documentaries, news, industrial films, and instructional films. The unique process of documentary production is examined including the role of research and how to script for nonfiction. The chapter considers practical challenges in securing financing and working in an environment of unpredictable events and social actors. Students are given detailed guidance on successful interview techniques, including both the process of planning and recording effective on-camera interviews.