The pep study has approached the problem from a somewhat different angle. It has examined the attitudes and practices of managers in forty-seven firms in a number of industries. The major interest of this study is, however, in those firms which are in fact increasing their productivity and not merely their production, since it is only through such firms that the nation's productivity and thereby its output can steadily be raised. It became apparent that many of the firms visited did not apply even comparatively simple techniques that should contribute to high productivity. This is demonstrated so frequently in the interviews that it seems likely that indifference to modern practices for improving productivity and efficiency is widespread within certain strata of British industry. The key conclusion is that management practices must be improved and modernised if industrial efficiency and the rate of growth are to be rapidly increased.