A statement of long-term and short-term objectives raises the question of the attainment, and focuses attention on the effectiveness of management in directing a company. Rapid growth of productivity is not likely to be achieved without continuous improvement in the performance of managers. Several of the firms visited had, accordingly, introduced management development schemes. Management development schemes begin with an assessment of present and future management requirements. In the former managers either attend outside training courses or, if the firm is large enough, join a course run by the firm. If succession from within the firm does not result from a policy of long-term management development, outside appointments may become necessary at the highest level. Executives in several of the medium-sized firms referred to the growth of professionalism. In only two of the firms visited were management consultants given a completely free hand to look at all parts of the firm's business.