The research team heard, from executives in the wool textile industry, of a variety of efforts to introduce new or improved products ranging from creaseless cloth to spinning or balling machinery being developed with machinery manufacturers. Machine tool makers ought to be not keeping parallel with the pace of improvement but ought to be leading the pace because they are the prime mover in production. In most of the shipyards visited it was the executive responsible for the design, estimating and drawing offices who answered questions on research and development (R & D). The electronics industry spends as much as 17 per cent of its net output on R & D. Firms were visited in the earthmoving equipment industry. Most of them were British but a minority were either American subsidiaries or mergers of American and British firms.