The Molecular Structures of the Eukaryotic Cell
Most of the membranal proteins of eukaryotic cells have one or more oligosaccharide chain on their extracellular segments. Besides the cell membrane, there are numerous membranes in organelles of eukaryotic cells, for example endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes. Molecular disturbances of the skeleton are best visible on free movable cells in body fluids, in the first place in erythrocytes that change their shapes and become elliptic, spheric. The microtubules radiate from the centrosome to the cell membrane. The malaria parasites can enter inside the erythrocytes only in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the host cell membrane. The membranal proteins play the decisive role in the specific functions of cell membranes. Membrane channels are composed of specific proteins that enable passage of small water soluble substances such as ions, amino acids, and sugars. The cells internalize specific receptors over the entire cell surface, but the receptors return to a particular cell region.