chapter  18
Image Analysis of Biomass Immobilized on Micro-Carriers
Pages 8

The application of micro-carriers such as sand, activated carbon, and coke in modifying the activated sludge systems has resulted in "fluidized bed systems"' and "carrier activated sludge system~."~, ' The presence of these micro-carriers in the activated sludge reactors provide a significant surface area (10,000 to 100,000 m2/m3 of carriers) for the formation of biofilm and thus aids in retaining a high concentration of biomass in the reactors.