Iraq and Libya
Chapter 4 , Iraq and Libya: under the iron fist sets the analytical lines for the structured focused comparison of Iraq and Libya from an historical perspective. While not intended to provide a comprehensive historical analysis, the chapter traces the key stages Iraq and Libya went through from independence onwards: the rise of revolutionary regimes; regime consolidation; and regime transformation and resilience. The analysis focuses on how representation and political authority, the provision of security and the monopoly of violence and wealth creation and distribution have evolved throughout the regimes of Saddam Hussein and Muammar Qadhafi. The chapter provides the necessary background for analysing Iraq and Libya after regime change. It demonstrates the pitfalls of the interpretation of the regimes of Saddam Hussein and Muammar Qadhafi as monolithic and as diametrically opposed to the current situation.