Originally published in 1986. Since "modern" management’s beginning at the turn of the twentieth century, there have been pleas from management practitioners and academics alike to solidify the underlying foundation upon which it is based. However, until the field of management can boast of an all-inclusive and unified body of management theory, it will continue to remain without such a needed and desired framework.
Confusion, controversy, and disagreement are traditionally characteristic of a new and growing field of study. The field of management is no exception. A large extent of the basic controversy and confusion associated with management thought can be attributed to disagreement over concepts and terminology. This absence of agreement and the resulting lack of standardization associated with it are the problems addressed by this study. Its purpose has been to undertake a thorough analyses of selected management concepts in an effort to: (1) clarify the meaning of these concepts by tracing their evolutionary development, (2) initiate a standardization of the fundamental terminology and definitions used in the field of management, (3) provide a beginning lexical soiree for additional future development and compilation of management terminology, and (4) contribute to the first and perhaps most vital step in the process of creating a valid and universally accepted general theory of management.