chapter  8
The Evolution of Party Resources
ByBernard Tamas
Pages 23

Chapter 8 shows how fundamental changes in campaigning by the middle of the twentieth century undermined third parties. The rise of for-profit newspapers as well as both television and radio led to a smaller number of media outlets that did not consider news about third parties profitable. At the same time, the rise of candidate-centered campaigning created a campaign environment that required far more money than third parties could raise. However, the rise of the internet and especially social media has created new opportunities for third parties. These changes produce cheaper methods for reaching voters and raising funds through small donations, and at the same time it has produced a more fragmented news media that is more open to promoting alternative candidates.