A membrane is considered the heart of every separation process because it is developed as a nanostructured/nanofunctionalized thin barrier that controls the exchange between two phases, not only by external forces and under the effect of fluid properties, but also through the intrinsic characteristics of the membrane material itself. This book compiles cutting-edge research in membrane science, nanomaterials, and nanotechnologies, mainly from interdisciplinary research groups at the Institute on Membrane Technology, National Research Council (ITM-CNR), Italy, working on membrane design, membrane process engineering, and selected materials and practices for enhanced transport mass, charge, and energy. It covers topics on the design of new nanostructured membranes with improved properties, together with the identification of efficient transport–property relationships. It shares and strengthens the knowledge of making membrane technology a much more powerful and eco-friendly route, enabling one to provide prospective solutions and benefits for numerous fields of applications where traditional separation technologies suffer from many deficiencies. It is a great reference for researchers and investigators; graduate, PhD, and postgraduate students; and end users interested in membrane science and technology, nanomaterials, eco-friendly separation, chemistry, biology, and process engineering.