The Wave Function, Expectations Values, and Uncertainty
The uncertainty principle, formulated by Heisenberg in 1927, is a fundamental principle in quantum mechanics. It forces us to review key concepts of classical physics, and from this analysis are born the concepts of quantum physics. Consequences of the Uncertainty principle also introduces the concept of incompatible sizes, a completely new concept compared to classical physics. A state of the system, which we call a quantum state, will be determined from the knowledge of a set maximum of certain quantities that are independent and compatible with each other. A measurable physical quantity is called an observable. If at a given moment a measurement is performed by one or more compatible observables it is said they are performing an observation of the system. The basic principles of quantum mechanics are expressed by a number of postulates. Their numbers and can vary from one text to another.