This book is about poverty in post-Soviet Russia, about its causes, how it is dealt with, ways of getting out of poverty and policies against poverty. The book provides an overview of poverty and well-being in Russia, covering recent developments in poverty, inequality and social programmes as current challenges for the country. It uses empirical data collected by some social surveys and interview material collected during the writer’s field work in four Russian regions. The introductory chapter establishes the context for the analysis of poverty in Russia in subsequent chapters. It considers the background to poverty as a post-Soviet phenomenon, paying attention to the interrelation between the economic system and the problems of poverty. Theoretical tools used in the book are described and the main topic of each chapter is presented.