Arlene K. Fleming has advanced degrees in archaeology and telecommunications. She is engaged in projects that bring new fi nancial resources, technologies, and approache s to cultural heritage protection and management in the event of armed confl ict, natural disasters, climate change, and infrastructure development, especially in developing countries. At the World Bank, Ms Fleming advises and participates in cultural heritage projects and policy formulation for safeguarding physical cultural resources in Bank-fi nanced projects. Ms Fleming is co-chair of the Cultural Heritage Section of the International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA). She has served as advisor to international organizations including UNESCO, the World Monuments Fund and the Getty Conservation Institute, as well as to the US Department of Defense and the National Park Service.