What Corruption Was, Is, and Is Not
This chapter discusses what corruption is and presents an argument for a broad definition of corruption in order to embrace important social problems. This is done in terms of a two-legged concept where exchange corruption concerns the relation of corruption to the effectiveness of government, which is closer to a formal public-office-related, legalistic, and narrower take. Governance corruption concerns the quality and effect of social control, and looks at broader structures as well as political exclusion, bias, and the obstruction of voice and vote. In deriving this outlook on corruption, Chapter 2 begins with what corruption is not and what characterizes good democratic governance. It looks at the role of bureaucratic routines, administrative culture, and mechanisms of exclusion in terms of generating corruption. An important conclusion is that public integrity concerns more than compliance with legal rules and that corruption is not only about officials who break rules, but it may also concern official and legal behavior such as exclusionary and duplicitous policies and systemic interest conflicts.