Is Corruption Inevitable? Can It Be Controlled?
Given that corruption can be found everywhere across the world, in various forms, it is reasonable to ask whether it is inevitable and whether it can be controlled. This chapter builds on earlier discussions in the book of approaches to corruption control, and addresses these questions using the case of New York City to study in depth how corruption and the control of corruption develop over time in a particular place. We take a long view, starting with the founding of the Dutch settlement, in what is now New York City, in the 17th century. The city’s history, political culture, and reform tradition form the core of the chapter. The history of corruption and corruption control in New York City provides a good illustration of corruption vulnerabilities; how corruption is generated in public organizations, including cycles of governance corruption; and corruption control. Nearly every type of corruption is found in the history of the city and virtually every modern method of corruption control has been applied to them at one time or another.