Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs
The case studies in this chapter show how international organizations have adapted to manage evolving human rights and humanitarian crises. They show how different actors perceive and understand their roles and how their actions have helped mitigate or exacerbate a human rights or humanitarian situation. Human crises are intertwined with war, political violence, poverty, environment degradation, and gross violations of human rights. The chapter examines the international law and international organizations that directly frame these issues to see how they shape the contemporary international political landscape. International criminal law (ICL) generally refers to the courts that have been created by the UN and the international community to prosecute those who commit serious violations of international human rights or humanitarian law. The international community has done a great deal to protect persons and to provide humanitarian assistance during crises. The UN responded to the post-World War II refugee movements by creating the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in 1950.