In spite of the contrasting records and problems of import substitution and export promotion as policies of industrial growth, industrialisation has nevertheless proceeded apace in almost all Latin American countries since the Second World War. Import substitution industrialisation has brought major structural changes in manufacturing. There have then been radical changes in both the structure and technology of Latin American industry in the last thirty years and substantial changes in the relationship of sector and technology between Latin America and the developed world. Although industrial technological expertise is concentrated in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, these three countries have developed contrasting policies towards technology. In terms of motor vehicle production, 86 per cent of assembly took place in Brazil, Mexico and Argentina in 1977. One illustration of the widening technological gap is the contrast between the Chilean and Brazilian motor vehicle industry.