Online communication and negative social ties
Social ties can also carry negative outcomes. Negative outcomes may result from being involved in negative social ties-negative in the sense of hostile, aggressive, and humiliating interactions. This chapter focuses on negative social network sources: cyberbullying, online harassment, the specific impact of online cyberbullying on adolescents' well-being, and the role of parents and peers in the prevention—and increase—of cyberbullying and harassment. Online harassment for the most part has consequences, and sometimes radical too. The chapter addresses this issue, the main task being to sort out what is new about cyberbullying from what is not and belongs to more traditional forms of peer harassment known before the advent of information society. It identifies incidents of cyberbullying and harassment, categorizes the personal and family characteristics of youth who are the victims of such experiences, and describes some consequences of such victimization.