Phalloplasty in Female-to-Male Sex Reassignment Surgery
These conditions make the desired result particularly challenging. There were two schools of penis and urethra reconstruction – the classic reconstruction using
tubed aps (Gillies and Harrison 1948, Hester 1978, Hentz et al. 1987, Laub et al. 1989, Exner 1992) requiring a multistage operation and a one-stage microsurgical reconstruction (Chang and Hwang 1984, Gilbert 1986, Gilbert et al. 1987, Biemer 1988, Hage 1992, Veselý et al. 1992). Followers of the classic school emphasise the size of the reconstructed penis, which can be, at least in some cases, really huge (Veselý et al. 2002). A really difcult step in this case is to form a functional urethra, as healing is often complicated by stenosis or stulas. Urethral strictures are more common especially in cases where a skin graft is used.