Image Guided 3D Printing and Haptic Modelling in Plastic Surgery
Modern imaging techniques have become an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic surgery. In the last decade, computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has demonstrated a reliable and accurate method of characterising a ap in perforator ap surgery for the selection of donor site, ap, perforator, and the optimal mode of dissection (Rozen et al. 2008,b,c). Furthermore, CTA has been shown to minimise donor site morbidity and improve operative outcomes in breast reconstruction (Rozen et al. 2008a). Recently, three-dimensional (3D) and 4D CTA have emerged, producing superior spatial resolution of perforator vessels, their vascular territory, and the dynamic ow characteristics (Colohan et al. 2012, Nie et al. 2013). However, all current imaging modalities are limited by being represented in 2D on a at surface, like a computer screen or a hard lm. A 3D-printed haptic model can provide a tactile feedback to the surgeon and, hence, a superior anatomical representation for surgical planning.