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My aim in writing this book is to introduce the fundamentals of environmental monitoring based on electronic sensors, instruments, systems, and software that allow continuous and long-term ecological and environmental data collection. I have tried to accomplish two objectives, as reflected in the two sections of this book. In Section I, starting with sensors, I progressively develop the concepts of transducers, signal conditioning, data acquisition, transmission, leading to entire systems and ending with database servers, web servers, and data repositories. After laying this foundation, in Section II, I cover a variety of sensors and systems employed to measure environmental variables in air, water, soils, vegetation canopies, and wildlife observation and tracking.