chapter  1
25 Pages


WithCharlene Tan

This chapter contends that Singapore, Shanghai, and Hong Kong share common characteristics that stem from and attest to the perpetual effects of Confucianism. The political, philosophical, and popular dimensions of Confucianism help to clarify some issues and debates surrounding Confucian beliefs and practices. Political Confucianism in Singapore is evident in the use of Confucian teachings for governance by its political leaders. The political and philosophical dimensions of Confucianism coexist with popular Confucianism that has been assimilated into the lifestyles of the majority of Singaporeans, albeit to differing degrees. Philosophical Confucianism is most prominently displayed in Shanghai and other parts of the mainland through a resurgence of Confucianism in China over the past few decades. From a Confucian perspective, assessment is indispensable because successful learning must be displayed publicly and validated by teachers who are exemplars of li.