Conclusions and implications
The policy initiatives in Singapore, Shanghai, and Hong Kong are influenced and fortified by indigenous value systems, customs, lifestyles, and presuppositions that permeate Confucian Heritage Cultures (CHCs). Three essential similarities are identified for education in Singapore, Shanghai, and Hong Kong: a shared moral vision of education as a public good; an effective use of tactical globalisation by the education authority; and a Confucian habitus that disfavours using non-traditional assessments for formal evaluation. An East Asian Educational Model (EAEM) is governed by Confucian habitus and targets high performance with the help of educational harmonisation. In Singapore, Shanghai, and Hong Kong, the tactics employed by the social actors highlight the Confucian habitus which are enabled by educational harmonisation and aided by various forms of capital. The powerful effects of Confucian habitus entail that high-stakes exams and academic performance have permanent residence in Singapore, Shanghai, and Hong Kong.