Three governance styles and their hybrids
This chapter elaborates the broad definition of governance presented in Chapter 1, which covers three basic governance styles: hierarchical, network and market governance. These styles represent proxies for quite different values and traditions that are driving governance, and are hence normative. The three basic styles typically occur in hybrid forms. The existing proposals to consider a fourth style are argued to be not necessary. Four schools of thought about sustainability governance are distinguished: strong central leadership, strong bottom-up partnership action, focus on transition management, and a dynamic multi-perspective approach (metagovernance). The chapter concludes with three problems that arise from interactions between governance styles and from their normative character: governance styles have built-in weaknesses, may undermine each other, and can become belief systems.