Photonics of Nanostructures
The current stage of the development of photonics is characterized by the fact that the main structural objects of its study are not structures from massive crystalline materials, but thin films, multilayer thin- film structures, threads, nanoparticles and nanodots. A quantum limitation occurs when the free motion of electrons, at least in one of the directions, is limited by the potential barriers that form in the nanostructure in which these electrons are located. This restriction introduces new regularities in the spectrum of allowed energy states and in the process of transfer of charge carriers through the nanostructure. Nanoparticles are usually called objects consisting of atoms or molecules having a size of less than 100 nm. Due to the small size, these particles differ in their properties from both atoms and bulk material. The dependence of the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles on their geometric dimensions is called dimensional effects.