Are security and development mutually reinforcing?
This chapter investigates what is meant by the terms 'security' and 'development' and the basis for thinking on violence and conflict in the developing world. It interrogates the assumption made in much of the academic literature, and by international policymakers, that 'there is no security without development and no development without security' and begins to unpack and historically situate the notion of a security-development nexus. The chapter focuses on theoretical literature to provide a conceptual approach to the relationship and places policy-relevant approaches within the academic debates about the relationship. It examines the policy implications of the security and development 'nexus' and the challenges which are beginning to emerge to these frameworks from rising and emerging powers as well as the 'fragile states' themselves. The United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report of 1994 is widely regarded as having signalled a sea-change in thivenking about security, encouraging policymakers to shift their focus from nation-states to individuals.