chapter  3
20 Pages

Current and future constraint headwinds

ByTim Lindsey

The global population reached 7.3 billion as of mid-2015 after adding about 1 billion people since 2003 and 2 billion since 1990. Population growth is projected to continue for many years and reach 9.7 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100. Continued population growth and consumption are projected to intensify resource constraints and produce a variety of new risks and uncertainties regarding international relations in an already turbulent world. Uncertainty, associated with future responses to the growing constraints, is creating an extra ordinary amount of constraint head-winds. The issues tend to be extremely complex and can impact diverse stakeholders through a wide range of economic, social, and environmental aspects. Effective strategies for responding to these measures vary greatly depending on the option implemented and the various levels of tax, emission limits, and so on. Investors have placed considerable pressure on businesses to achieve short-term financial performance rather than creating long-term, sustained value for shareholders and stakeholders.