chapter  3
28 Pages

Culture

ByAdam D. Kiš

One of the concise definitions of the concept of culture came from British anthropologist Sir Edward Tylor in 1871. By the early 1950s, A. L. Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn had found over one hundred definitions of culture in the academic literature. The notion that all cultural traits have rational explanations can be a difficult one to accept, especially when the cultural trait in question seems maladaptive – or even offensive – to the evaluator's culture of origin. A major advantage to having a culture that is shared with others in a society is that it greatly reduces the amount of behavioral negotiation required. Some of the most salient aspects of culture are their shared and learned properties. Cultural relativism is the practice of using a culture's own rules to analyze and understand it, rather than judging it by one's own standards.