This chapter explores some confounders to development and highlights the role that they play in actively working against the best efforts and intentions of aid implementers. It also highlights their relationship to retrovelopment. Poverty will never be completely eradicated due in large part to the agency of confounders to development. Poor governance can see as a confounder to development. It is an active force militating against progress in the fight on poverty, and can cause backsliding into retrovelopment. It is convenient to talk in neat and tidy terms for the sake of poking holes in logic, but the real model for the causes of poverty is much more akin to chicken scratches than to circles or lines. "The end of poverty will require a global network of cooperation among people who have never met and who do not necessarily trust each other".