Economic development and planning
This chapter focuses on inclusive approaches to land-use planning, taking the case of the City of Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia and its novel approach to urban development as part of its participation in the UN Global Compact Cities Programme. The low-carbon economic area is expected to save 6 million tonnes of carbon, create an additional US$975 million in the economy and support 34,800 jobs. Economic development and planning raise both tremendous opportunities and risks for sustainability, ranging from creating new employment to increasing pollution. Not only are green spaces important for the key social, economic and environmental reasons, they are also a valuable tool in mobilising residents to get involved with and take ownership of the community assets. Green spaces have an economic value beyond leisure and health benefits: they also contribute to community cohesion by bringing together different people of all ages and groups, and help to tackle climate change by acting as an urban coolant and flood defence.