This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book addresses a significant gap in international research on companies’ political/diplomatic role in peace processes in intrastate conflict—termed corporate peacemaking (CPM). It analyses the state of play and the possibilities for CPM as a new field that is distinct from the work on corporate roles in economic development which enhance peace. The book outlines some key terms and concepts used throughout the book, and clarifies the differentiation between “peacebuilding” and “peacemaking”. It explores the field of corporate responsibility, and international efforts to drive corporate support for human rights and peace. The book discusses a global approach to CPM, arguing that CPM is a potentially powerful element in global governance and peace efforts. It focuses on active agency for international business in peacemaking—the relational, political and diplomatic approaches—in peace processes and negotiations.